Disclaimer - This content has been created for information purposes only, please consult your doctor before taking any decision on diabetes management. Although great care has been taken in compiling and checking the information, Johnson and Johnson Ltd., and its associates shall not be responsible, or in any way liable for any errors, omissions or inaccuracies in this publication whether arising from negligence or otherwise however, or for any consequence arising there from.


a. Getting started with diabetes

Your doctor has just informed that you have diabetes. What next?
You can learn how to take care of your diabetes and how to prevent the complications that diabetes can cause.

b. Managing diabetes

For managing any type of diabetes, one should essentially -

Take proper steps to remain healthy


Proper management of type 1 and type 2 diabetes consists of blood glucose control and insulin management, nutrition, physical activity and support.


Injection by Hand

In type 1 diabetes, pancreas is unable to produce insulin; you will need to take insulin injections multiple times a day. Your doctor might ask you to take insulin with pens or syringes or an insulin pump.

For people on insulin, it is very crucial to learn how to administer insulin appropriately and monitor their blood glucose levels frequently to avoid going low on glucose levels.

You would need to work closely with your doctor to determine which type of insulin(s) would suit you.

Some people with type 2 diabetes can manage their diabetes with healthy eating and exercise as recommended by your doctor. However, your doctor may need to also prescribe oral medications (pills) and/or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels.



Food is one of the main factors that directly impacts blood glucose levels-and one you can control.

There is not one "diabetes diet" for everyone to follow. Instead, people with diabetes should have a varied, flexible meal plan based on their lifestyle and personal needs. The key is knowing how foods, especially the foods you like to eat, impact your blood glucose levels.

As long as you eat a balanced meal plan, you can eat nearly all of the things you enjoy, at least occasionally. Click to learn more about eating healthy



Being active is important for everyone, but it is more important for people with diabetes and those at risk for diabetes. It forms an essential component of living healthy and managing diabetes. Any type of physical activity helps to lower your blood glucose.

Regular exercise also has special advantages if you have type 2 diabetes. It improves your body’s sensitivity to insulin and helps manage your blood glucose levels.

People with type 1 should exercise caution while indulging in any kind of physical activity. Talk to your doctor about how to balance your insulin doses with the food you eat and the activity that you do – even if you are just doing house or yard work. This will help you keep your blood glucose from going too low or too high.

You should form a habit of checking your blood glucose frequently before, during, and after an exercise session. This will help you to understand how different types of activity affect you and prevent hypoglycemia (low blood glucose). Click here to know more about physical activity

Blood glucose monitoring at home

Monitoring at home

Blood glucose monitoring is an important tool which helps to keep a check on your diabetes control. It remains to be one of the cornerstones of diabetes self-care.

Keeping a record of your results is equally vital. This will help your doctor to have a good picture of your body's response to your diabetes care plan.

(Click here to download a log book to keep track of your blood glucose levels)

Blood glucose is affected by many factors like food, exercise, emotions, stress, insulin and other medications.

Knowing your blood glucose helps to make informed decisions like when and what to eat, when and how much activity to do, and sometimes, how much medicine to take.

Target blood glucose levels for people with diabetes as per IDF* & ADA^ recommendations are:

70-130 mg/dl less than 180 mg/dl

* International Diabetes Federation
^ American Diabetes Association

Why should you check your blood glucose levels?

Checking your blood glucose levels on a regular basis will:

  • Provide you quick information of your blood glucose level at a given time
  • Determine if you have a high or low blood glucose level at a given time
  • Indicate how your lifestyle and medications are affecting your blood glucose levels
  • Help you and your doctor to make changes in your diabetes plan that will improve your blood glucose levels

Click to learn more about blood glucose monitoring at home